Due to the sheer number of models in gifted education, it was decided that five models would be discussed during the course of our hour-long chat. Additional models will be briefly covered in this blog post. A full transcript of the chat may be found at Storify.
- Renzulli’s School Wide Enrichment Model (SEM) ~ a widely used model which appeals to a broader definition of giftedness.
- Betts’ Autonomous Learners Model (ALM) ~ a self-directed learning approach.
- VanTassel-Baska’s Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM) ~ specifically high ability learners.
- Gagné’s Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent ( DMGT) ~ distinguishes between natural ability & talent development.
- Gentry’s Total School Cluster Grouping (TSCG) ~ employs differentiation within the framework of inclusion.
The first question was to ask, “Why there are so many different models in gifted education?” The consensus was that a wide variety of models allowed for greater choice to meet the needs of gifted students. It was also pointed out by several people that because there is no one definition of ‘giftedness’ that different models responded to particular definitions. Different models appeal to different school settings – rural, urban, suburban, region of the country. Each model’s perspective may be from different vantage points – intellectual, social-emotional, neurological (Gifted Challenges).
“Just like every gifted kid is different, every community, district, and school has its own needs and demands.” ~ Jeffrey Farley, Middle School Teacher in Beaumont, Texas
Certain models seemed better suited to either the elementary or secondary level. In fact, the moderator pointed out that several of the models had modules specific to each level. Some models of gifted education are geared toward self-contained classrooms more common in the lower grades K-3. Other models are been adapted for content specific areas of instruction.
Factors that might be considered to ensure the success of any chosen model included flexibility; availability of professional development so that all stakeholders fully understand the program is critical; sufficient budget to implement a new program; a mind-set that is supportive of gifted education in general; as well as parent and community support.
“We need more support and training for teachers in their higher education teacher prep programs!” ~ Toby Brown, PhD candidate teaching at Oklahoma State
Would it be better to simply consider acceleration or multi-age classrooms as opposed to implementing a specific model? Academically, acceleration is an excellent option; other considerations–maturity, siblings, sports–still play a role. In the final analysis, the most important factor voiced by most of our chat participants was CHOICE! Every child is different and every child should have options to choose from that best meet their individual needs.
Global #gtchat Powered by the Texas Association for the Gifted and Talented is a weekly chat on Twitter. Join us Fridays at 7/6 C & 4 PT in the U.S., midnight in the UK and Saturdays 1 PM NZ/11 AM AEDT to discuss current topics in the gifted community and meet experts in the field. Transcripts of our weekly chats can be found at Storify. Our Facebook Pageprovides information on the chat and news & information regarding the gifted community.
About the author: Lisa Conrad is the Moderator of Global #gtchat Powered by TAGT and Social Media Manager of the Global #gtchat Community. She is a longtime advocate for gifted children and also blogs at Gifted Parenting Support. Lisa can be contacted at: firstname.lastname@example.org
Individual Models and Links
School Wide Enrichment Model: “In the SEM, a talent pool of 15-20% of above average ability/high potential students is identified through a variety of measures including: achievement tests, teacher nominations, assessment of potential for creativity and task commitment, as well as alternative pathways of entrance (self-nomination, parent nomination, etc.). High achievement test and IQ test scores .automatically include a. student in the talent pool, enabling those students who are underachieving in their academic school work to be included.” ~ from the Executive Summary, Renzulli and Reis
The Schoolwide Enrichment Model Executive Summary Renzulli/Reis
Autonomous Learners Model: ““The Autonomous Learner Model (ALM) was initially created to provide students with alternative learning environments. The main goal of the ALM is to create independent, self-directed learners. Ideally, students will become lifelong learners through the ALM. The philosophy of the ALM is “to do it with the gifted, and not to them.” This philosophy embodies the belief that teachers should become facilitators and students should become learners. Students will go through each of the five dimensions of the ALM and they will gradually gain more control over their own learning.” Models for the Gifted (website)
Integrated Curriculum Model: “ICM was specifically developed for high-ability learners based on current research evidence at the time of what worked with gifted learners. It has three dimensions: (a) advanced content, (b) high-level process and product work, and (c) intra-and interdisciplinary concept development and understanding.” Gifted Child Quarterly 2007 51: 342
Serving Our Gifted Children in a Normal Classroom (pdf) Margaret Hodgson
What Works in Curriculum for the Gifted (pdf) Joyce VanTassel-Baska
Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent: “Francois Gagné’s differentiated model of giftedness and talent considers behaviors that appear spontaneously easy different from those that require mastery through extensive training. According to Gagné, giftedness is a superior natural ability whereas a talent is an ability/skill that has been developed exceptionally well. From this perspective, a talent implies a gift, but a gift does not automatically imply a talent.” Duke TIP
A Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent (pdf) Gagné
Gagné’s Differentiated Model of Giftedness & Talent from DukeTIP
Total School Cluster Grouping: “Cluster grouping model that takes into account the achievement levels of all students and places students in classrooms yearly in order to reduce the number of achievement levels in each classroom and facilitate teachers’ differentiation of curriculum and instruction for all students and thus increase student achievement.” ~ From Total School Cluster Grouping & Differentiation, by Marcia Gentry and Rebecca L. Mann, p. 9
Total School Cluster Grouping & Differentiation (Amazon) Marcia Gentry
Total School Cluster Grouping (pdf) via Iowa TAG Presentation Slides by Marcia Gentry
“All Together Now?” in Education Next Winter 2011 by Mike Petrilli
Parallel Curriculum Model (PCM) ~ Tomlinson: “The Parallel Curriculum Model is a set of four interrelated designs that can be used singly, or in combination, to create or revise existing curriculum units, lessons, or tasks. Each of the four parallels offers a unique approach for organizing content, teaching, and learning that is closely aligned to the special purpose of each parallel.” ~ Parallel Curriculum Model Powerpoint Presentation, New Zealand Ministry of Education
Presently Gifted (website): Parallel Curriculum Model
The Parallel Curriculum: A Design to Develop Learner Potential and Challenge Advanced Learners (Amazon) Tomlinson and Kaplan et al
Talents Unlimited (TU) ~ Schlichter: “Talents Unlimited (TU) is an empirically based staff development model structured to help educators develop the creative and critical thinking skills, or talents, of their students. This model embraces the philosophy that traditional academic success is not the only indicator of somebody’s ability to think and solve problems, and that a person can express his or her intellectual potential in a variety of forms. The model categorizes six talent areas– Productive Thinking, Decision Making, Planning, Forecasting, Communication, and Academic– and outlines a staff development program to help teachers nurture each of these talents in the classroom.” ~ from Models for the Gifted (website)
Talents Unlimited, Inc. Prezi by Jennefer Lowke 9/30/2013
Talents Unlimited (website)
Purdue Three-Stage Enrichment Model for Elementary Gifted Learners (PACE) ~ Feldhusen: “Regardless of age or content area, the core goal of this model is to move the student from novice toward practitioner. This model can be implemented as a wide-reaching program, or as a smaller curriculum. Through three distinct stages, this model begins with covering basic levels of knowledge, continues with the application of that knowledge and skills, and finishes with students solving real-life problems. Because of its simple steps, this model is not difficult to implement, needing only a variety of resources for students to interact with at the second and third stages. This model is both flexible and adaptable to many different settings and is low cost.” ~ from Models for the Gifted
Multiple Intelligences (MI) ~ Howard Gardner: “According to this theory, “we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences – the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains.” ~ from “The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide,” by Carla Lane at Multiple Intelligences
More Models (All links from Models for the Gifted (Google Site):
General Links on Models in Gifted Education:
Models for the Gifted (Google Site)
Systems & Models for Developing Programs for Gifted & Talented, 2E (Amazon) Renzulli & Gubbins
Introduction to Definitions and Conceptions of Giftedness (pdf) Robert J. Sternberg
Links from chat participants:
Cybraryman’s Design Thinking Page
Cybraryman’s Understanding by Design Page
Cybraryman’s IEP Individualized Education Programs
Dr. Edith Johnston joined #gtchat to discuss her work and philosophy on ‘multi-talents’; those individuals with high abilities in several areas. Dr. Johnston’s focus is with those who are not expressing at their desired or needed level. It was noted that multi-talents often feel they are different, but don’t always know why. In response to these feelings, they may hide their talents.
Perfectionism, Imposter Syndrome, self-medication, dropping out, hiding are all possible consequences for multi-talents who do not understand their own feelings. They often do not ‘learn how to learn’ and this can create conflicts in their adult lives. Dr. Johnston’s advice includes: set mastery as the goal, not perfection; challenge oneself to gain more skill and expand your talent; and increase self-awareness. A full transcript may be found on this blog.
Dr. Johnston’s website, “How to in Life”
Dr. Johnston at An Intense Life from @chrstinef
Gifted for Life from @SoniaDabboussi
Kulpers & Van Kempen (Supporting Extra Intelligent People & Their Environment)
Multi-talents MIA | Beyond Mediocrity (Audio Program) by Dr. Edith Johnston
A Myriad of Ideas: Personal Development for Multi-Talented Individuals (book) by Dr. Edith Johnston
Discovering the Intensity of Brilliance | A Mandala Journey (book) by Dr. Edith Johnston
Multipotentiality from @thethinkteacher